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University Name: University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Study Level: Undergraduate
Location: Dartmouth, Massachusetts
Course ID: CIS542
Digital forensic science is the field of forensic research that focuses on recovering and investigating data from digital devices used in crimes. The term "digital forensics" was coined to replace the word "computer forensics." It has been grown to include the analysis of any gadgets that may store digital data. Although the first computer crime was documented in 1978, and the Florida Computer Act was passed the following year, it wasn't until the 1990s that the phrase "computer crime" became widely known. National policies on digital forensics did not arise until the early twenty-first century. The process of identifying, conserving, evaluating, and documenting digital evidence is known as digital forensics. This is done so that, if necessary, evidence can be presented in a court of law.
Digital Forensics is an integral aspect of the Incident Response process for corporations. Forensic investigators identify and record aspects of a criminal incident to be utilised as evidence by law enforcement. In many cases, the rules and regulations that govern this process are crucial in proving innocence or guilt in a court of law.
A Digital Forensics Investigator is someone who wants to trace the trail of evidence and digitally solve a crime. Consider a security breach at a corporation that results in data theft. In this case, a computer forensic analyst would investigate how the attackers got access to the network, how they navigated it, and what they did while there, such as stealing data or planting malware. A digital forensic investigator's job in these situations is to recover data such as documents, images, and emails from computer hard discs and other data storage devices such as zip and flash drives that have been erased, destroyed, or otherwise corrupted.
Looking back on the history of digital forensics, it's clear that law enforcement at the time had just a rudimentary understanding of how to apply digital forensic procedures. During the 1970s and 1980s, however, the forensics team was largely made up of members of federal law enforcement organizations with a background in computers. Because most paperwork is done digitally, the first area of concern for law enforcement was data storage. Seizing, keeping, and examining the documents was undeniably a time-consuming task for the authorities. In response to this, the FBI developed the Magnet Media programme, the first formal digital forensics programme, in 1984.
Other strategies for detecting cybercriminals who break into computer systems were developed as a result. The first honeypot trap was invented in 1986 by Cliff Stoll, a Unix System Administrator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Due to the proliferation of child pornography on the internet, digital forensics grew in popularity. Demand for digital forensic inquiry grew as a result of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. At the same time, digital forensics was crucial in extracting evidence from the digital assets obtained by US troops during the fight. The United States made electronic discovery mandatory in its Rules of Civil Procedure in 2006. The information about a person on the system, such as the URLs they have visited, when they were active, and what device they were using, is referred to as their digital footprint. The investigator will be able to retrieve the data needed to solve the crime case by following the digital traces.
To mention a few, digital forensics was used to solve the cases of Matt Baker in 2010, Krenar Lusha in 2009, and others. Cyber forensic investigators are specialists in decryption data utilizing a variety of software and instruments. Depending on the type of cybercrime they're working with, investigators employ a variety of new approaches. Recovering destroyed files, cracking passwords, and determining the source of a security incident are all duties that cyber investigators must complete. The evidence is then saved and translated so that it can be presented in a court of law or for police to investigate further.
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