Get Best Essay Written by US Essay Writers
Phone no. Missing!

Please enter phone for your order updates and other important order related communication.

Add File

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.



As a measure of health equity, a valuable population measure of well-being, a way to identify population trends unrelated to sexual health, and a way to refocus the form, practices, and ethics of public health, sexual well-being is essential to public health. Therefore, promoting sexual health is important for public health and well-being (WHO 2022). Emotional, physical, mental, spiritual, and social aspects of sexual health all have a role in how well an individual feels about their sexuality throughout their life span. The focus of this essay will be to shed light on the sexual health issue of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM terminology denotes all practices that result in the partial or full removal of the external genitalia of females or any other harm to that same genital organ for non-medical objectives. There are four classified types of FGM, namely, clitoridectomy or type I, excision or type II, infibulation or type III, and others which are included in type IV. Type III is the most severe form (Njue et al. 2019). This paper will also explore perspectives like raising awareness against FGM and providing education. The paper will also discuss theories linked to sexual health, like the theory of essentialism and social constructionist belief regarding gender. Various models of sexual health promotion like the health belief model and theory of planned behaviour will be discussed in this paper. Several international organizations have collaborated to put an end to the practice of FGM. Various nations have also implemented policies and interventions against FGM, and the UK is one such country. Society, culture, religion, and ethics impact FGM, which has been highlighted in the paper. Various barriers are there that hinder the process of sexual health promotion in various populations. A multidisciplinary approach is required involving authorities, health care professionals, nurses, victims of FGM, community members, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to ban the practice of FGM.


For an individual, a relationship, or a family to be healthy and content generally, as well as for communities and nations to flourish socially and economically, sexual health is essential. When considered optimistically, sexual health necessitates a positive and respectful attitude toward sexuality and interpersonal relationships and the ability to engage in pleasant and secure sexual experiences free from coercion, stigma, fear, prejudice, and violence (WHO 2022). It includes the capacity to comprehend the risks, benefits, and obligations of sexual behaviour and the ability to prevent and treat disease and other unfavorable outcomes and engage in fulfilling sexual interactions. Promoting sexual health is the method by which people gain the capacity to manage and enhance their sexual health. Enhancing sexual and mental well-being and lowering risks of sexually transmitted diseases, unintended pregnancies, and in this case, FGM is all goals of promoting sexual health (Stephenson et al. 2020). Practices, policies, and services that promote healthy outcomes for communities and individuals impact sexual health. Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South America all have communities and ethnic groups that engage in the practice. This procedure mainly and severely impacts minor girls and young adult females. It is a serious public health issue and a global concern. The size and scope of this issue are huge. About 200 million women worldwide are affected, and three million girls worldwide undergo the operation each year, as the World Health Organization reported. In 2011, it was discovered that 137,000 females living in the UK had undergone FGM (Chen 2022). The practice of FGM is illegal in the UK. In England and Wales, 60,000 girls between 0 and 14 were born to mothers who had experienced FGM.
Surviving with the impacts of FGM are around 103,000 women aged 15 to 49 and 24,000 women aged 50 or above who have moved to Wales and England. Additionally, 10,000 girls under 15 who have moved to Wales and England have had FGM. 25 African nations have made FGM a crime, and regulations like the Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Act in the UK have been applied to the developed world. The external female genital organs are cut or altered during FGM. FGM is covered under criminal and civil laws in Wales, England, and Northern Ireland under the Female Genital Mutilation Act of 2003.  The Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act 2005 governs FGM in Scotland. The majority of the time, traditional medical practitioners conduct this procedure (GOV.UK 2022).
This essay has selected this topic as FGM is severe discrimination against women and a violation of human rights. FGM is regarded as an infringement of girls' and females' rights on something like a worldwide scale. It represents extreme discrimination targeting girls and women and demonstrates inherent discrimination against women. It infringes the rights of children, considering it almost constantly targets juveniles. The process also violates a woman's right to life and liberty when this leads to their death, their right to health, security, and bodily integrity, and their right to be liberated against torture and harsh, gratuitous, or degrading treatment. It is a serious public health issue. FGM is an acute physical trauma that carries a risk for both short- and long-term consequences and mental health issues (Buggio et al. 2019). The evidence that FGM is detrimental to girls' and women's physical health is increasing. Some of FGM's critical medical concerns include excessive bleeding, swelling of the vaginal tissues, pain, wound healing issues, and urine retention (Sarayloo, Roudsari and Elhadi 2019). Chronic consequences have frequently been documented, involving genitourinary issues, infections, and a wide spectrum of sexual and obstetric disorders.
Among the mental health issues identified by research among female immigrants, women living in their nations of origin, and among adolescents and children are somatization, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and symptoms of distress, anxiety, insomnia, anger, helplessness, irritability, and reduced self-esteem (Taraschi et al. 2022). Therefore, it is related to sexual health promotion. The COVID-19 pandemic adversely and disproportionately affected girls and women in 2021 (Lalthapersad-Pillay 2022). It compromises SDG target 5.3 on the abolition of all harmful practices, including FGM. By 2030, 2 million additional girls could be subjected to FGM. The United Nations has been modifying operations to guarantee that FGM is included in humanitarian and post-crisis response in light of this disruption through its UNFPA-UNICEF joint initiative (United Nations 2022). 
Sex and sexuality, in Freud's view, are the primary factors influencing the evolution of human society and its foundation (Wuest 2022). Due to their sexuality, some individuals face discrimination. According to Freud's theory, sex is the primary and natural force behind a species' survival. Although sex and sexuality are neutral in their purest form, classifications for suitable erotic inclinations and fantasies have emerged due to social conventions. Freud talks about babies who lack moral principles but already exhibit the existence of fundamental sexual urges that govern their behaviour. In this way, sex is the defining characteristic of every individual because it is essential to society's development and existence. Women's and men's lives and situations in society, their interactions, how they obtain and use resources differently, their behaviours, and how they adapt to interventions, changes and legislation are all included in the category of gender issues. The most significant reasons why gender issues exist in certain populations are illiteracy, poverty, social beliefs and customs, unemployment, and anti-female behaviours (Sam 2019). Social constructionist theories contend that sociocultural factors influence power-stretched social categories, while essentialist theories contend that social categories are determined by an unchanging, universal essence that all category members share (Schudson and Gelman 2022). The social construction of FGM entails that it is a complex topic, and issues ranging from the practice's medical ethics to the terminology being used to describe it are widely discussed. When people compartmentalize these intricately intertwined concerns, it results in problematic perceptions and understandings of FGM. The debates surrounding this practice raise questions about human rights, colonialism, feminism, terminology, and legal procedures. Gender-based discrimination infringes on the fundamental human right to gender equality. Girls are disproportionately impacted by gender disparity, which begins in childhood. Numerous contextual factors related to gender inequality have been shown to support FGM, such as highly unequal societies where gender prescriptions call for girls to be virgins before marriage, chaste and monogamous in marriage, and women to be sexually available to their male partners. Women to produce legal male heirs to uphold their husband's patrilineage. Other reasons include concerns about a girl's ability to be married, social approval, and the fear of losing protection from other women and society at large if she refuses FGM (Khosla et al. 2017). 
The goal of the health promotion paradigm is to assist individuals in achieving greater levels of well-being. It implores medical personnel to offer helpful tools to assist people in changing particular behaviours (Sentell, Vamos and Okan 2020). In order to comprehend and explain health behaviour and to direct the selection, creation, and use of interventions, models and theories are employed in program design. The specific health issue being addressed, the population being addressed, and the situations in which the program is being executed are all significant considerations when choosing a model or theory to govern health promotion. The Health Belief Model is a theoretical framework that can be applied to initiatives for health promotion (Anuar et al. 2020). It is employed to anticipate and describe shifts in one's own health practices. It is among the most frequently applied models for comprehending health behaviours. The Health Belief Model's core concepts emphasize on how individual health beliefs determine individual health-related behaviours. The health belief model states that there are four variables that determine a person's level of willingness to take action on a health situation. First, one must consider one's perceived vulnerability to the condition and its likely severity. Second, is the impression of advantages linked to taking steps to minimize the threat or vulnerability. The evaluation of possible barriers, such as those that are physical, mental, or financial, comes third. Finally, the general health motivating factors that prompt effective healthcare behaviour come next, which include internal cues like symptoms and external factors like interpersonal communication and interaction (Mbanya et al. 2018). Parents have a responsibility to make sure their children who have experienced FGM receive the appropriate care. A choice to obtain care for FGM-related difficulties is contextual in that it takes into account the complicated socio-cultural viewpoint of the practice. The choice to seek medical care in an African environment rest with the woman herself and her family members because FGM is linked to culture. Health seeking for FGM may in some circumstances be influenced by the availability and expertise of care providers, the nature and severity of the condition, the woman's position, her prior experiences, and the anticipated quality of the care (Mbanya et al. 2018). The most severe form of FGM, infibulation, is most prevalent among ethnic Somalis in all of the nations where they have traditionally settled, including Eritreans and Sudanese. The data backing up the theory of planned behaviour shows that stated intentions are a more accurate predictor of behaviour than attitude. However, the conditions may mandate otherwise. In a nation where FGM is prohibited and the purpose to perform the procedure on someone could result in legal penalties, attitude may be more reliable than intention. The aim, however, might be more accurate when evaluating deinfibulation in the diaspora because such intents would not violate the law. Therefore, the theory's applicability is most likely to differ depending on the level of cultural, legal, and moral sensitivity to the element of FGM (Johansen 2021). After undergoing FGM, a woman decides to deinfibulate, in accordance with the theory of planned behaviour. A conceptual model, which is centred on the theory of planned behaviour, might help patients and doctors have discussions that result in shared decision-making. The WHO has released a guidebook for healthcare professionals that offers instructions on deinfibulation and patient counselling. Additional direction on how to talk about FGM and deinfibulation with patients in a way that respects their cultures, communities, and beliefs may be helpful for providers (Brady et al. 2021).
Clinical recommendations that are more considerate and consistent will be made possible by collaborative efforts between the public health industry and community-based groups that effectively engage men and women throughout practicing communities. Socio-cultural interactions at the confluence of migration and health will still necessitate sufficient consideration if medical ethics uphold the core values and principles of justice, accountability, and beneficence.  It requires a dedication to acknowledging the inherent dignity and worth of girls and women's contexts. Acknowledging why FGM is performed is important to eradicate it. FGM is a complicated topic, and there are numerous justifications for implementing it, depending on the circumstance and the community context. For example, the practice is more widespread in around 30 African nations among rural residents, individuals with reduced educational levels, and members of lower socioeconomic standing families (Sabahelzain et al. 2019). The arguments for FGM vary throughout ethnic groupings. For example, the Maasai population of Kenya practices FGM for cultural (60%) and religious (6%), rites of passage (38%), wedding (37%), pureness and virginity (29%), hygiene and cleanliness (11%), and sexual control (1%), among many other reasons. In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition. Social and religious factors also impact FGM. FGM is frequently viewed as an essential component of a girl's development and a means of preparing her for maturity and marriage. When FGM is a societal norm, the pressure to follow the lead, the desire to fit in, the desire to be acknowledged socially, and the fear of rejection by the community all serve as powerful motivations for the practice's continuation. FGM is linked to cultural notions of modesty and femininity, including the perception that girls are beautiful and clean after removing body parts considered unclean, male, or unfeminine (WHO 2022). Different religious leaders have different stances on FGM. Some support it, some think it has no place in religion, and some attempt to eradicate it.
A growing number of men and women in communities where FGM is practiced favour its abolition, and its prevalence as a whole is declining as a result of international cooperation and legislative frameworks being implemented in many nations. But the fight against FGM is advancing too slowly. There are various complexities concerning the sexual health promotion of FGM. Implementing suggestions and upholding the legal frameworks concerning FGM present challenges. For instance, despite the fact that type III FGM was banned in Sudan in 1946, the practice still exists and no one has been successfully prosecuted. International concern has also been raised about the growing practice of having medical professionals conduct FGM. For instance, FGM is legally performed by medical professionals in hospitals in Malaysia (McCauley and van den Broek 2019). Some medical professionals support the belief that medicalizing FGM minimizes some of the risks connected with acute health consequences and results in "less damage" being done. They consider this to be a harm-reduction method. Some communities continue to claim that FGM is a long-standing cultural and traditional practice and that Western nations should not enforce their "colonialist" and "imperialist" beliefs on it. Several people are talking about the issue both internationally and in nations where FGM is common because of heightened media attention and statements made by religious leaders, ministers, faith-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, and celebrities. However, there is a continuing necessity for a more robust organized, and coordinated method in which social views and conventions are questioned, community awareness and participation are mobilized, and medical, legal, and other frameworks promoting eradication are established and actively implemented (McCauley and van den Broek 2019). Policies and interventions have been developed to support effective sexual health promotion concerning FGM. By 2030, the United Nations intends to entirely eliminate it, in line with Sustainable Development Goal 5. Since 2008, UNFPA and UNICEF have worked together to conduct the greatest worldwide initiative to hasten the end of FGM.  The Joint Programme actually provides international and regional programs while concentrating on 17 nations in the Middle East and Africa. And over 5.5 million women and girls got protection, prevention, and care services linked to FGM with the help of the joint effort. A total of 42.5 million individuals publicly announced their decision to stop FGM. A total of 361,808 females were spared from FGM (United Nations 2022). The theme for International Day of Zero Tolerance for females 2022 is “accelerating investment to end female genital mutilation.”
The importance of locally driven efforts to combat FGM are crucial.  Additionally, a family reform would have to begin with parents, especially fathers, playing a more active role in their daughters' lives. Keeping girls in school and educating communities, especially young men, about FGM are some of the most successful approaches to combat the practice. It is crucial to enhance the awareness and training of healthcare professionals so that they can bring positive change. Orphans are at a high risk of being exposed to the practice, and it is crucial to safeguard them by setting up community centres for them (Mwendwa et al. 2020). Including FGM in the existing school curricula and public forums is important. The UK has also adopted various interventions for putting an end to the practice. A grassroots organization called Midaye specializes in providing Arabic- and Somali-speaking ethnic minorities in West London with a variety of services. It plans and routinely conducts training sessions for the community and other professionals. A multi-agency safeguarding effort called Operation Limelight is focused on harmful practices like FGM at the UK border (GOV.UK 2022). It is a countrywide operation that the Police and Border Force are delivering. England offers National FGM Support Clinics which are integrated, community-based clinics that provide a variety of support services offered by a multidisciplinary team, for women who are 18 or older and are not pregnant. These consist of medical evaluations and care (including deinfibulation if necessary), counselling, access to an FGM Health Advocate, and safeguarding information. Psychotherapy and psychosocial services are provided to women who have undergone FGM (GOV.UK 2022).


 Therefore, from the above discussion, it can be concluded that in the majority of African nations and among ethnic minorities in Asia. FGM is a traditional practice carried out on young girls and women. Several female individuals worldwide are affected by this harmful practice and therefore it is a serious matter of public health (WHO 2022). It is thought to be a violation of a basic human right, which is why there are several concerns and condemnations of the practice from a humanitarian and ethical standpoint. In modern society, there are gender disparities, and FGM is a form of gender discrimination. It impacts the mental and physical health of women and girls. Various social and cultural factors impact FGM. Models of sexual health promotion like the health belief model have been discussed in the paper, and various theories linked to sexual health have been discussed as well. Several international organizations are working collaboratively to put an end to the practice of FGM. Countries like the UK have adopted several interventions and policies for preventing FGM. Various FGM awareness programs have been implemented for eliminating FGM. However, it is still prevalent in various countries as various complexities exist in promoting sexual health. Comprehensive approaches are required, combining comprehensive education with consideration for the risk of orphans being exposed to the practice, women serving as role models, providing training to healthcare professionals, the support of religious leaders, and men gaining access to the discussion to openly advocate for the practice's cessation. It will call for a combination of open and tenacious campaigning by various community representatives, legal enforcement and surveillance, and community-level assistance for behaviour change (Mwendwa et al. 2020).


 Anuar, H., Shah, S.A., Gafor, H., Mahmood, M. and Ghazi, H.F., 2020. Usage of Health Belief Model (HBM) in health behavior: a systematic review. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 16(11), pp.2636-9346.
 Brady, S.S., Connor, J.J., Chaisson, N., Sharif Mohamed, F. and Robinson, B., 2021. Female genital cutting and deinfibulation: Applying the theory of planned behavior to research and practice. Archives of sexual behavior, 50(5), pp.1913-1927.
 Buggio, L., Facchin, F., Chiappa, L., Barbara, G., Brambilla, M. and Vercellini, P., 2019. Psychosexual consequences of female genital mutilation and the impact of reconstructive surgery: a narrative review. Health Equity, 3(1), pp.36-46.
 Chen, S., 2022, January. Female Genital Mutilation and Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery. In 2021 International Conference on Social Development and Media Communication (SDMC 2021) (pp. 582-587). Atlantis Press.
 GOV.UK, 2022. Female genital mutilation: resource pack. [online] GOV.UK. Available at: <> [Accessed 15 August 2022].
 Johansen, R.E.B., 2021. The applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior for research and care of female genital cutting. Archives of sexual behavior, 50(5), pp.1935-1941.
Khosla, R., Banerjee, J., Chou, D., Say, L. and Fried, S.T., 2017. Gender equality and human rights approaches to female genital mutilation: a review of international human rights norms and standards. Reproductive health, 14(1), pp.1-9.
 Lalthapersad-Pillay, P., 2022. Maternal and Reproductive Health in the Midst of COVID-19: The Case of Africa. In Exploring the Consequences of the Covid-19 Pandemic (pp. 83-100). Apple Academic Press.
 Mbanya, V.N., Gele, A.A., Diaz, E. and Kumar, B., 2018. Health care-seeking patterns for female genital mutilation/cutting among young Somalis in Norway. BMC Public Health, 18(1), pp.1-10.
 McCauley, M. and van den Broek, N., 2019. Challenges in the eradication of female genital mutilation/cutting. International health, 11(1), pp.1-4.
 Mwendwa, P., Mutea, N., Kaimuri, M.J., De Brún, A. and Kroll, T., 2020. “Promote locally led initiatives to fight female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)” lessons from anti-
FGM/C advocates in rural Kenya. Reproductive Health, 17(1), pp.1-15.
 Njue, C., Karumbi, J., Esho, T., Varol, N. and Dawson, A., 2019. Preventing female genital mutilation in high income countries: a systematic review of the evidence. Reproductive health, 16(1), pp.1-20.
 Sabahelzain, M.M., Gamal Eldin, A., Babiker, S., Kabiru, C.W. and Eltayeb, M., 2019. Decision-making in the practice of female genital mutilation or cutting in Sudan: a cross-sectional study. Global health research and policy, 4(1), pp.1-8.
 Sam, S., 2019. Perceived familial gender discrimination in relation to adjustment level of adolescent girls. Hypothesis, 200, p.200.
 Sarayloo, K., Roudsari, R.L. and Elhadi, A., 2019. Health consequences of the female genital mutilation: a systematic review. Galen Medical Journal, 8, p.e1336.
 Schudson, Z.C. and Gelman, S.A., 2022. Social constructionist and essentialist beliefs about gender and race. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, p.13684302211070792.
 Sentell, T., Vamos, S. and Okan, O., 2020. Interdisciplinary perspectives on health literacy research around the world: more important than ever in a time of COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), p.3010.
 Stephenson, R., Metheny, N., Goldenberg, T., Bakunina, N., De Vasconcelos, S., Blondeel, K., Kiarie, J. and Toskin, I., 2020. Brief intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies: protocol of a mixed methods feasibility study. JMIR research protocols, 9(3), p.e15569.
 Taraschi, G., Manin, E., Bianchi De Micheli, F. and Abdulcadir, J., 2022. Defibulation can recall the trauma of female genital mutilation/cutting: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 16(1), pp.1-5.
 United Nations, 2022. International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation | United Nations. [online] United Nations. Available at: <> [Accessed 15 August 2022].
 WHO, 2022. Female genital mutilation. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 13 August 2022].
 WHO, 2022. Sexual health. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 13 August 2022].
Wuest, J., 2022. After Liberation: Sex, Social Movements, and Capital Since the New Left. Polity, 54(3), pp.000-000.

Hurry and fill the order form

Say goodbye to dreadful deadlines