Essay On How Children Learn

The teaching and learning process in classroom settings is significant for the growth and development of the children therefore, it is important that we make the appropriate choice of pedagogical implementation and assessment. The process of learning among children is diverse and engagement plays an important role in terms of their experience of classroom and out-of-classroom settings (Kuschner 2012). It is important for the children to develop a sense of understanding in relevance to attaining knowledge as well as implementing skills in the form of acquiring learning, cognitive and practical skills (Lilley 1967). As a teacher in primary education, in my opinion it is our responsibility to evaluate the learning style of children and identify the environment changes that they need to implement their understanding of the world around them and making sense of it.
 

As a teacher, I reflect on my students and their development by making observations in the learning patterns, using materials that we have submitted based on diverse assessments. It is this approach that helps me understand the impact of teaching on the learning changes and development of children as well as the way the environment influences the development (Tovey 2007). My block school experience (BSE1), has been based on my teaching of primary education with QTS in a 4 to 5 class where the children were 9 to 11 years old for the group of 28 children. The teaching focus was behaviour management for the group of children however, it was important to implement language learning considering they spoke other languages thus, identified as English as Additional Language (EAL). The children also had diverse background such as Spanish which reflected on my role to be inclusive, engaging and diverse in my approaches of teaching. In this experience I acquired an understanding of the common behavioural changes that has been observed in children as well as the reinforcement that is used in the environment and the social setting of these children. To influence their learning patterns as well as their cognitive understanding, the classroom resources and displays and necessary to be evaluated. It is the physical aspects that often influence classroom learning and environment reflecting the engagement of children with educators, parents and community members (Ofsted 2017).
 

Based on the pedagogical approaches, the three core learning theories that has been identified to be used often in primary education within the classroom or social constructivism, behaviourism and Constructivism. Being a teaching practitioner, it is important for me to understand the way children learn in a natural process therefore, we must give them the appropriate environment to grow (DfE 2017). According to Skinner (1935), behaviourism can be described as a theoretical approach where development is through behavioural changes that is implemented by the surrounding environment of the children. Identifying this theory in the context of school, it is to be stated that the educator sets the needed behaviour a response for the children who in turn follow it based on the learning plans and activities. Another significant theory that has been observed in classroom learning is Constructivism where the learner and information and knowledge to their prior existing knowledge. In the context of classroom learning, it is the responsibility of the educator to implement knowledge that is relatable to the prior knowledge of the children. The educators accordingly support them in relevance to the children discovering, assimilating and accommodating further acquisition of knowledge (Watson and Rayner 1920). The third learning theory is social constructivism where collaboration with other students helps the children to gain more knowledge. It is the process of social development and growth in children that is encouraged and supported by teachers through implementing group activities and group learning process (Piaget 1970).
 

The lesson plan that I have used to educate the children through the subject was be a super digital citizen where the focus area for my professional learning was behaviour management. Lesson plan was created based on key vocabulary such as digital citizen, bullying, upstander and others leading to effective implementation of resources such as worksheets, answer sheets, PowerPoint presentation and others (Bruner 2009). The children were taught the ways in which they can identify characteristics for an individual to be an upstanding digital citizen, they can recognise cyber bullying as well as they can create a digital citizenship superhero comic-strip. Through the assessments, I have added a few answer sheets of the children so that there is a clear idea of the way the learning objectives has been developed among the children. The implications for these lesson plan have been to prepare the children for diverse forms of assessment such as summative and assessment for learning (Jarvis, Holford and Griffin 2003). The use of assessment and its impacts on children can be described through identifying the goals of summative assessment where students learning can be evaluated after the instruction lesson plan does comparing it with a specific standard (Standards and Testing Agency 2016). For example, the children had to perform on the given questions and accordingly answer them in relevance to their understanding, acquisition of knowledge as well as prior knowledge.
 

The choices with activities that are implemented for lesson plans and learning can be constituted through evaluating the disadvantaged backgrounds of the children. It is necessary to identify the need for high-quality teaching so as to establish and reinforce routines in the classroom setting for the children (Bruner 1996). This will help create an effective learning environment which will not only benefit the children’s acquisition of knowledge but also help them self-regulate their emotions. The Early Years Childhood framework can be evaluated in relevance to the identity of the young children as involved and engaged learners. Children by nature are confident communicators therefore, it is the teachers who influences the resilience and the beliefs of the children reflecting the significance of the types of assessment that can be implemented (Watson 1930). For example, helping the children in developing their ability to learn is the role of a teacher there for implementing motivational approach is an effective way of increasing Intrinsic such as identity and values and in extrinsic factors such as rewarding. Rewarding and recognition is one of the important strategies that can be implemented for the children to feel involved and engaged in the learning activity (Rose, Rogers and Carruthers 2018).
 

Catering to the individual needs of the children and their group-based requirements, the lesson that I will be focusing on is teaching English to a Spanish girl. The girl in particular who was Spanish in that specific class of mine barely knew any English developed skills and displayed growth that was both effective and rigorous. This raises the concept of active interaction and responses being the key approach in relevance to making her feel a part of the classroom (Ansell and Nicholson 2014). From my point of view, it is suitable for me to approach the child through providing external stimuli in the form of play-based activities such as showing her letters and asking her to identify the English alphabets. The particular stimulus that can be encouraged through the action-based approach is for her to be aware of the language English, its implementation on a daily basis as well as its reliability and accurateness when using in our specific circumstance. This example can be justified through behaviourism cutie where the understanding and the capability of the pupil is influenced by their surroundings. The prior knowledge acquired by the children is used to commit specific key factors in their memory. It is these factors that are implemented to influence change in their learning system that is positive. The way children will behave in a certain way is influenced by the teaching and the classroom environment in which they are learning (Ashbridge and Josephidou 2018).
 

The prior learning information for lesson plan (Appendix) and delivery is another significant aspect that plays an important role in the way important knowledge gets committed in children’s memory. It is to be establish that the capacity for maintaining long term memory is limited therefore the children must not be overloaded with information and training of skills. It is important to help them acquire a working memory that is developed in relevance to their understanding of their environment as well as the acquired knowledge (Clark, Nguyen and Sweller 2011). Positive behaviour is promoted through implementation of pedagogical and professional behaviour of the teachers. It starts from the understanding of brain development where the children are taught to critically think about the acquired knowledge and skills. To do so, it is important for their cognitive structure as well as social and emotional experience to develop in relevance to the knowledge they are acquiring (Cremin and Arthur 2006). The memory that stores information encodes and retrieves the necessary required knowledge based on the need. For children to be involved and engaged in the learning process, it is important to implement and understand procedural memory and semantic memory that helps the children to become responsible in remembering information and using them in required circumstances (McInerney and Putwain 2016).
 

Building relationships through social and emotional aspects is an important aspect in social constructivism which is another important key learning theory used to describe the way children develop their memory capacity. Through social constructivism, the variables based on which classroom learning is dependent can be evaluated. The memory capacities of children in sociocultural context can be evaluated through this theory where it is the focus on individual development that helps both parents and teachers to understand the learning style of the children. It is also the way in which progression and capacity of a child is evaluated by making them involved in social interaction leading to maturity and growth (Kuschner 2012). The phenomena of child’s zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky informs of the interaction that takes place between a competent person such as an educator and a less competent person such as the student. The less competent person is encouraged through the use of instructions thus, introducing the notion of scaffolding thus, using motivation as an extremely powerful tool to influence the children (Lilley 1967). This not only helps the children to become more confident but also makes them believe in their own skills leading to them performing their own tasks. The process of self-regulation not only ensures the child in terms of their own acquired skills but also ensures the parent in terms of their children’s engagement in classroom learning as well as personal skills (Tovey 2007).
 

Behaviour for learning is observed by Hobbs evaluating the signals and the cues that are given by the children when receiving positive reinforcement and implementing their understanding of the language. As children, it is often observed that they are egocentric because they like listening to Princess therefore as a teacher who is an adult to them must encourage them, motivate them and boost their self-esteem so that they can be more attentive in the learning process (Bruner 2009). Behaviourism that has helped me to implement the lesson plans (appendix) as well as the assessments of the children. When evaluating the growth and development in the children, as an adult it is my responsibility to decide on the significant knowledge and skills that are necessary for the children to respond to the instructions that are being provided in the classroom. In the process, the rules in the teaching and learning phenomena, instruction and responses are imperative. Assessing and reinforcing the children’s prior knowledge and its implementation to the overall growth is observed through responding to the needs of the children (Skinner 1935).
 

It is therefore, a necessary step towards implementing diverse and inclusive practice when I reflect on all the evidence that I have collected in the form of observation, monitoring and evaluation of the children’s learning. Implementing diverse pedagogical approach as well as theoretical understanding of the progress of the child helped me into focusing towards the need of school and national policies that must be implemented for further growth of children. Not only that it is necessary for the growth and development of teachers and educators in terms of their implementation of pedagogical theories and assessments (Watson 1930). Training our teachers in a certain way not only contributes to the growth of their education career but also helps them identify the needs of the children and accordingly cater to them. The development of the education industry is inclusive of diversity, cultural influence, positive learning experience, motivation and others. Encouraging both educators and children through this process will help people like us to bond well with children so as to understand their needs and effectively help them acquire the same (Ansell and Nicholson 2014). Apart from the implementation of theory where the children’s learning is encouraged, it is the educational philosophy of sharing and cooperation being an important part of early years learning (Cremin, T. and Arthur 2006). Implementation of effective communication, introduction of ideas as well as involvement of activities where both teachers and parents can join contributes to the Early Year learning development of the children (Piaget 1970).
 

The out of classroom learning occurs when children are encouraged to participate in activities that are related to daily routines such as gardening, painting, making a salad and others. Through this lesson plan, I have also helped the children learn about the significance of problem solving and decision making. Performing their given tasks independently and making decisions about the same such as type of resources to be used to perform in the assessment, use of paper open at the different ways in which the involvement of the children is observed (Ashbridge and Josephidou 2018). Throughout the learning process, I have always encouraged links to community by using open ended question that has increased children’s engagement and involvement in the learning process. Acknowledging the challenges, they have experienced in terms of implementing different resources, I have encouraged them to adjust to diverse environment so that we can learn something new. It has not only enhanced their adaptability skills but also encourage them to learn further.
 

 In my opinion, theoretical learning and pedagogical approaches are an important part of classroom environment that looks after the needs and growth of the children in the classroom. The importance of theoretical information and acquisition of the same helps in future growth of the children. However, the practical implementation of these theoretical knowledge is a more important representation of learning. Children having prior knowledge can implement the same by Learning about the practical implementation of the knowledge. It is the role of an educator to praise the theoretical knowledge as well as practical implementation skills of the children. The good behaviour of the children must also be encouraged by praising it through using positive language frequently. This further contributes in creating a safe and secure classroom environment resolving any little distractions that might occur. It can be concluded that the children’s learning as an outcome is significant due to the implementation of theories such as behaviourism and social constructivism. They contribute to the individual as well as group-based growth reflecting the significance of theories that are being put to practise on a daily basis. Growth in individual child is observed by providing education resources as well as encouraging practical engagement in activity-based learning process.
 

References


Ansell, C. and Nicholson, D., 2014. The national context for the curriculum. Learning to Teaching in the Primary School Oxon: Routledge, pp.283-299.
 
 
Ashbridge, J. and Josephidou, J., 2018. Classroom organisation and the learning environment. Professional Studies in Primary Education,, pp.121-141.
 
 
Bruner, J., 1996. The culture of education. Harvard University Press.
 
 
Bruner, J.S., 2009. The process of education. Harvard university press.
 
 
Clark, R.C., Nguyen, F. and Sweller, J., 2011. Efficiency in learning: Evidence-based guidelines to manage cognitive load. John Wiley & Sons.
 
 
Cremin, T. and Arthur, J., 2006. Learning to teach in the primary school. Routledge.
 
 
DfE (2017) Statutory Framework for the early years foundation stage: setting the standards for learning, development and care for children from birth to five. London: HMSO
 
 
Jarvis, P., Holford, J. and Griffin, C., 2003. The theory and practice of learning (p. 198). London: Kogan Page
 
 
Kuschner, D., 2012. Play is natural to childhood but school is not: The problem of integrating play into the curriculum. International Journal of Play, 1(3), pp.242-249.
 
 
Lilley, I.M., 1967. Friedrich Froebel: A selection from his writings. Cambridge University Press.
 
 
McInerney, D. and Putwain, D., 2016. Developmental and educational psychology for teachers: An applied approach. Routledge.
 
 
Ofsted, 2017. Bold beginnings: The Reception curriculum in a sample of good and outstanding primary schools. November, No 170045.
 
 
Piaget, J., 1970. Science of education and the psychology of thechild. Trans. D. Coltman. New York: Viking Press.
 
 
Rose, J., Rogers, S. and Carruthers, E., 2018. Building on firm foundations: early years practice. In Learning to Teach in the Primary School (pp. 101-119). Routledge.
 
 
Skinner, B.F., 1935. The generic nature of the concepts of stimulus and response. The Journal of General Psychology, 12(1), pp.40-65.
 
 
Standards and Testing Agency (STA) (2016) 2017 Assessment and Reporting Arrangements (ARA). London: HMSO
 
 
Tovey, H., 2007. EBOOK: Playing Outdoors: Spaces and Places, Risk and Challenge. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
 
 
Watson, J.B. and Rayner, R., 1920. Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 3(1), p.1.
 
 
Watson, J.B., 1930. Behaviorism (revised edition). University of Chicago Press.
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