Essay On People Living With Cancer And Their Nursing

Introduction To Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is identified by the progression of the cancerous proteins into female breasts, which ultimately results in inflammatory responses. The progression of the protein (or genes) is associated with the gene mutation. The gene mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 genes is the most common that affects the milk-producing ducts. Some of the most prevalent causes of breast cancers include obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy or menstruation complications, and prolonged hormonal therapies. The statistical data represents that approximately 77,236 cases were identified in Australia in the last 5 years (from 2012 to 2016). However, in the year 2021, 19,866 females and 164 males were diagnosed with cancer (Kim et al., 2021). However, to promote the patients, well-being and integrated care approach, multidisciplinary care is also supported to ensure the full range of care to patients. This type of care is provided to the patient before the treatment and continues till the end of treatment. The general practitioners and nurses facilitate the coordinated care of patient. The breast physicians, surgeons, health professionals, Counsellors, and oncologists are involved in the MDT to meet all the psychosocial, psychological, and clinical requirements of the patients. Further discussion will highlight the facts related to pathophysiology, people experiences, cellular signaling pathways, nursing assessment, and promoting the evidence-based practice to improve patients’ wellbeing.

Analysis Of Sources

According to Jansson et al., (2018), Cellular signalling pathway is associated with cancer activation. PCGFR Pathway is generally considered by the targeted pathway that undergoes alteration in signalling pathway to influence the cells activation to speed up cancer. PCGFR (Platelet-derived growth factor receptor) pathway is linked to the tumorigenesis causing the aggressiveness in breast cancer. The PCGFR mediated signaling pathway is exclusively studied biological mechanism under the study of which, cell growth and proliferation are reported and regulated. The dysregulation or suppression of these factors leads to cause breast cancer when due to increased estrogen elevation in the growth phase. Further, BCR-ABL is the target kinase factor of the dysregulated PDGFR receptors causing the pathophysiology. Under this signaling network, two types of tyrosine kinase receptors (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) are associated. Concerning to the strength and weakness, the qualitative research focuses over the cellular signalling pathway, diagnostic tools and managing patients case analysis. Further, large cohort data was collected to investigate the impact of fallow up care and treatments for patients.

According to WHO, to increase the survivability and efficacy of breast cancer treatment, disease identification and prognosis is mandatory under the treatment procedures. Treatment can be performed through chemotherapy, endocrinal therapies. surgical methods and biologic targeted therapies (such as through radiations) to reduce the speed of cancer. The successful breast cancer therapies have resulted in more than 90% survival-ability for more than 5 years.

Further explanation of treatment regarding with endocrine suppression activity was justified by Kim et al., 2021. According to him, Tamoxifen acts as the endocrine antagonist that is significantly used on the clinical basis. In order to inhibit the dysregulated functioning of PDGFR, certain chemotherapeutic drugs are incorporated into the treatment of breast cancers. Tamoxifen is the most prescribed drug that can be used for patients with breast cancer in the form of adjuvant therapy to increase the survivability of the patients. Aromatase Inhibitors (AI) provide superior effectiveness for breast cancers. Moreover, although, there is no complete understanding of the survivability of patients with ER+ breast cancer, the PDGF receptors tend to improve the progression of patients’ conditions by suppressing the progression of pathway associated with cancer.

According to Hargreaves et al, (2018), living with cancerous conditions brings a lot of physical, psychological, and emotional challenges to the life of patients. they developed qualitative research to reflect over varied experiments by people.  under the analysis, approximately 84 patients were selected to proceed with the study. All the people show related concerns of disease challenges and influence of empathy over survival rate of patients. The challenges to cope up with the disease also bring long-term side effects on the treatment of the patients.  Physical challenges include the alterations in menstruation and the menopausal stage of the women, which associate with fertility problems. Developing empathy has found to be supportive concern for the patients to cope up with the severity of cancer. emotional challenges regard the devastating conditions of the patients when they diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Several physiological impacts are being noticed among the patients who have undergone cancer diagnosis and treatment. The strength of the literature is that empathetic support provides the warm atmosphere within supportive connections to the patients, through which patients can effectively share their concerns and perceptions to the supportive people. Further, empathy provision can improve shared feelings, relationships, emotional understanding and better connection with the people of community and cultures. however, the weakness of the paper was that analysis were based on the comparison of two diseases, breast cancer and motor neuron disease, which are quite differ from each other’s in terms of symptoms and survivability.

According to, (2020), cancer affected patients who undergo anxiety, depression, lack of sleepiness, and confusion, are required to be promoted, protected, and undergo survivorship and shared follow-up care practices. Shared care plan, which is the responsibility of MDT, to be actively involved in effective communication with breast cancer patients and incorporate the planned delivery for the patients. Survivorship care consists of the following elements, that include consulting with the experts and patients to determine the feelings on success rate and recovery phase of breast cancer, Sharing the communication, interaction, and appointments for a few years after completion of treatment. Patients should be assisted for mammographic diagnosis annually and screening for at least five years. Managing the treatment-related side effects of patients, by observing the therapy outcomes, reviewing the active phase treatment against breast cancer, and promoting the secondary infection prevention strategies by providing a general care management plan. The strength of this research was that shared care plan, effective communication can improve patients’ conditions from being more severe. Moreover, such types of treatment are easy to access and improve the survivorship by delivering patient centred care (Haase et al., 2021).

According to PeterMac, (n.d.), a computer-based application named iPrevent is used to estimate the risks associated with breast cancer, screening, and prevention information. Considering an example of tamoxifen, a 33% reduction in cancer is estimated. iPrevent is the assessment and evidence-based tool to assess the health and care of the patients with breast cancer, under which multidisciplinary team tend to include and provide the satisfactory discussion with the patients. the tool is developed to facilitate the better engagement of patients to fasten their recovery and creating the personalised care and support report. To support the understanding of patent’s history, the tool estimates the family cancer history, including their lifestyle, reproductive health. No weakness was identified as analysis of the literature review was supported by the Australian menopause society, to use the automated tool. In order to estimate the accurate information, validation through IBIS and BOADICEA algorithms is estimated on a personal basis under the cancer Australia guidelines. It provides usable and acceptable information for patients and clinicians under peer-reviewed publications (Australian menopause society, 2018).
Various current evidence and research are being carried out to support clinical decisions made for patients’ wellness. All the research papers were focusing most on the similar concepts that treatment alone cannot manage the conditions of the patients. beside the treatment, multidisciplinary teams are also required to cooperate and providing the effective and strengthen relationship with the patients. the strengthen relationship, and effective communication can improve their survivorship and support the patient to deal with the breast cancer on the emotional basis also (Sunilkumar et al., 2021).

The same fact of signaling pathways associated with causing cancer was also justified by Joglekar-Javadekar et al., (2017) presenting those expressions of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ are associated with metastasis in tumour cells and stroma. The activation of PDGFRα and β factors occurs due to the binding with PDGF ligands that tend to stimulate the intracellular pathways to promote cancer growth. However, Neoadjuvant therapy is preferred over the Tamoxifen treatment with 20-15% more efficacy. The therapy is used to reduce the larger-sized tumors of the patients, and assist the patients in the surgical planning, after completion of the imaging. The post-COVID era made negative impacts on interviews. Several ethical issues can be undergone in multiple chronic conditions even if patients are provided with self-management care (Haase et al., 2021).

Several gaps were identified in all the case analysis of the research papers. Gaps are generally regarding with other side effects impacting on the health and wellbeing of patient. The gap identified in the research paper of Hargreaves et al, (2018), was that, the research was performed on the basis of online forum and on the average number of populations, which cannot provide the fostered help to determine other concerns of people. for example, some of the patients do not seek empathetic concerns as they find it awkward and suppressed for sharing their communication with others. The collected sample of 40 people was done based on qualitative analysis by performing interviews. The analysis determined patients’ oncogenic alterations post-treatment through online interaction. However, the risks associated with this research were that people could not engage properly, which interpreted the misinformation.

No gap was identified in the researches of, (2020). It strengthens the outcomes of the information to promote the wellbeing of patients. Although the research studies of, (2020), does not possess any gap in identifying the patient’s needs and survivorship, a weakness can be recognised. The weakness is that such treatments take longer time to improve patient’s conditions and need more critical care and attention by more than one healthcare providers.

The gap identified in the research studies of Jansson et al., (2018), were that, this cohort analysis was performed on the cells that were already regulated form the cancerous progression. Further, there are chances of risks to further tumour progression even after significantly reduction of breast cancer, and lack of emotional support

There were no gaps identified in research studies of PeterMac, (n.d.) in using iPrevent tool. The tool is used by the clinicians to promote the treatment efficacy of the patients. However, the side risk can be associated with the confidentiality for the people, who do not want their health conditions to reveal.


PCGFR is generally a signaling pathway for cellular growth and proliferation. Treatment is assisted by the health professionals to provide evidence-based practice for the patient. Under this approach, clinical trials, neoadjuvant therapy, surgery, and therapies are included. The overlooked care management makes people experience living with multimorbidity. 70% of people reported chronic conditions who were of age approximately 65 years. However, 37% of adult people below 65 years have undergone chronic conditions. Such chronic alteration created declined vision, hearing, mobility, and functional impairment. The people living with cancer who had recently undergone the treatment have serval health-related sufferings. Nurses should follow patient-centered care as the holistic care approach. Respectful and responsive nursing care involves valuing the needs of patients considering their cultural beliefs and family care. Nurses should establish a trustworthy relationship with patients and prefer the patient’s decision-making. The holistic nursing approach is essential for the patients to improve their mental health so that they can cope with the long-term malignancy risks.


Australian menopause society, (2018). iPrevent: an evidence-based tool to assess and manage breast cancer risk., (2020). Shared follow-up and survivorship care for early breast cancer. 
Haase, K. R., Hall, S., Sattar, S., & Ahmed, S., (2021). Living with cancer and multimorbidity: A qualitative study of self-management experiences of older adults with cancer.
European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 53, 101982.  
Jansson, S., Aaltonen, K., Bendahl, P. O., Falck, A. K., Karlsson, M., Pietras, K., & Rydén, L., (2018). The PDGF pathway in breast cancer is linked to tumour aggressiveness, triple-negative subtype and early recurrence. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 169(2), 231-241. 
Joglekar-Javadekar, M., Van Laere, S., Bourne, M., Moalwi, M., Finetti, P., Vermeulen, P. B., & van Golen, K. L., (2017). Characterization and targeting of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Neoplasia, 19(7), 564-573. 
Kim, S., You, D., Jeong, Y., Yoon, S. Y., Kim, S. A., & Lee, J. E., (2021). Inhibition of plateletderived growth factor receptor synergistically increases the pharmacological effect of tamoxifen in estrogen receptor α positive breast cancer. Oncology Letters, 21(4), 1-8. 
PeterMac, (n.d.). iPrevent: resources for clinicians
Sunilkumar, M. M., Finni, C. G., Lijimol, A. S., & Rajagopal, M. R., (2021). Health-related suffering and palliative care in breast cancer. Current Breast Cancer Reports, 13(4), 241-246. 
Hargreaves, S., Bath, P. A., Duffin, S., & Ellis, J., (2018). Sharing and empathy in digital spaces: qualitative study of online health forums for breast cancer and motor neuron disease. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(6), 9709.  
WHO, (2021). Breast cancer. 
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