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Please Answer The Following Questions:

1. Please describe the relevant ROS (Review Of System) and PE (physical examination) that you would perform for this adolescent visit. Are there any findings on PE that might alert you to suspected “drug” use? If so, please describe.
2. What screening tool(s) (if any) would you use when screening Jessica for tobacco, ETOH, and drug use? Jessica completely denies any use of tobacco and ETOH at this visit but does report being sexually active with two partners since her last well visit and “not always” using condoms. Privately, she does report “experimenting with pills” she got from her friends. She is unsure what they are.
3. What primary and secondary prevention modalities would be appropriate for Jessica based on her exam and her sexual activity? What kind of education would you provide to Jessica?
4. What would you discuss with Jessica regarding “experimenting with pills.”
5. Please list three resources for Jessica and her mother that may be helpful based on your findings



Answer 1

ROS is just as crucial as PE in the context of Jessica; however, HEEADSSS will be employed as a ROS approach for this particular case. In the case of HEEADSSS, a comprehensive psychological examination of the person is carried out by collecting data linked to the individual's activities at home, school, and in their social life. The HEEADSSS interview is not intended to be in direct competition with the official standards for preventative care given to adolescents, which have been created by organisations such as the American Medical Association. It is recommended to do the psychosocial interview while the teenager is reasonably well since that is the ideal time to acquire information under low-stress settings, and this is the best time to do so when the adolescent is generally well (Sterling et al., 2012). The SBIRT will serve as a useful instrument during the physical examination. It has been hypothesised and supported by a substantial body of research conducted over the past two decades that SBIRT is effective in reducing the risky use of AODs in adolescents, and that the fundamental principles and techniques of SBIRT, such as motivational interviewing, may in fact be particularly well-suited to the developmental stage of adolescence. Screening followed by a very short intervention has been shown in a number of studies to be both effective and feasible for use with teenagers, with positive effects across a broad spectrum of outcomes (Sterling et al., 2012).

Answer 2.

On The Basis Of Epidemiologic Data, The National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Addiction Created a Screening Tool For Alcohol Consumption In Adolescents And Young Adults (Kelly et al., 2014). Additionally, the research that was carried out (Kelly et al., 2014) indicated that primary care trips present an opportunity to identify and intervene with substance-using youth. This is significant due to the fact that the majority of youth in the United States have access to the health care system, and trying to prevent substance abuse among adolescents is a national public health priority. The use of the BSTAD or other instruments that are similar can be a key step in effectively intervening in the lives of teenage patients and determining whether or not they are using substances. According to the scenario that was given, she is experimenting with medications and occasionally does not use condoms; therefore, instruction should be offered regarding her sexual behaviour. In the circumstances at hand, I will recommend to her that she make use of condoms so that she may protect herself against sexually transmitted illnesses as well as unplanned pregnancies. That is one potential risk associated with engaging in sexual activity without first utilising a condom. In addition to this, I will request that she bring the medication that she was taking, and I will also recommend to her that if she wanted to take pills, she should only do so if they were given to her by a qualified medical professional.

Answer 3.

Even though there are now medications that are successful for HIV, the prevention of HIV transmission is still the most effective technique for preventing the virus from spreading. Because of their immature cognitive development, beliefs of invincibility, risk-taking behaviours, and impulsivity, adolescents are among the most susceptible of all age groups. The evaluation and implementation of preventative measures for all adolescents, as well as the detection of HIV-positive young people, are essential components of any complete preventive plan. Determine the level of parental participation and support, as well as the family's perspective on risk taking, sexual activity, and drug use, taking into account the patient's or client's age. (Oshri et al., 2016) Ask the teenager what they believe their parents might do if they found out that their kid had engaged in high-risk activities such as sexual activity, drug use, or the use of illicit substances. Inquire about the drinking and drug using habits of both the parents and any other members of the family. Secondary prevention requires a tiered strategy that involves the efficient distribution of information that is specifically targeted as well as treatments that are psychological in nature. The primary objectives are as follows: prevent patient reinfection with another virus strain through risk reduction; avoid spreading HIV to others by applying psychoeducational measures with the patient; and prevent perinatal transmission of HIV by discovering HIV cases in teenage females. When the evaluation is finished, the teenagers who are in the high-risk group but do not know their HIV status should be identified and connected with resources so that they may get tested. Because this is so important to the outcome of the referral process, it is imperative that concerns raised by teenagers be addressed with a discussion of the benefits and drawbacks associated with HIV testing.

Answer 4

It is an issue that is underreported for the prevention of HIV transmission all around the world that the average age of young people who inject illegal substances is falling (White et al., 2020). When a person is making the transition from adolescent to early adulthood, this is often the time when they begin experimenting with illegal substances for the first time. Families, communities, and nations all face severe dangers to their health as well as social and economic problems as a result of substance abuse. On the other hand, not every young person in every region of the world uses drugs for the same reasons. Abuse of substances is becoming an increasingly prevalent social, economic, and public health concern, and there is no denying the dangers that are linked with this issue. It is one of the sorts of conduct that is most detrimental to a person's health in the long run, and it is related with other forms of hazardous behaviour, such as participating in sexual activity without protection, which can lead to HIV/AIDS.

Answer 5

Following are the three resources along with their description 
Abuse of substances and problematic patterns of drug use among young people can lead to problems at school, create or exacerbate concerns linked to both physical and mental health, encourage poor peer connections, cause motor vehicle accidents, and impose burden on families. They also have the potential to evolve into issues that last a lifetime, such as dependency on substances, chronic health problems, and the implications socially and financially.
A resource that encourages teenagers and their parents to have a conversation about committing to taking or providing safe and sober transportation home for the adolescent. In collaboration with Ryan Whitney's family, the Center for Adolescent Substance Abuse Research (CeASAR) developed Teen-Safe, a web-based educational intervention designed for the parents of high school students. The goal of the programme was to make resources regarding teen substance use accessible to families, educators, and healthcare professionals. This website describes the impact that alcohol and drugs have on the growing brain of teenagers and provides recommendations that are based on scientific research for protecting adolescents throughout the high-risk season that includes proms, graduation, and summer vacation. Greater than 30 percent of parents in this country give alcohol to their teenagers under the misguided impression that they can shield them from the negative effects of alcohol. Teen-Safe gives the evidence, both scientific and anecdotal, that demonstrates this to be an extremely risky and misguided practise.
Within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), SAMHSA is an agency that helps in advancement of behaviourl health of the citizen along with that improvement in living condition of individuals suffering from mental health or dugs abuse disorder.  The goal of these efforts is to reduce the prevalence of mental and substance use disorders in the general population.


Kelly, S. M., Gryczynski, J., Mitchell, S. G., Kirk, A., O’Grady, K. E., & Schwartz, R. P. (2014). Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use. PEDIATRICS, 133(5), 819–826.
Oshri, A., Carlson, M. W., Kwon, J. A., Zeichner, A., & Wickrama, K. K. A. S. (2016). Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(1), 151–164.
Sterling, S., Kline-Simon, A. H., Wibbelsman, C., Wong, A., & Weisner, C. (2012). Screening for adolescent alcohol and drug use in pediatric health-care settings: predictors and implications for practice and policy. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 7(1).
White, G., Luczak, S. E., Mundia, B., & Goorah, S. (2020). Exploring the Perceived Risks and Benefits of Heroin Use among Young People (18–24 Years) in Mauritius: Economic Insights from an Exploratory Qualitative Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 6126.

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