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Course Title: Research And Inquiry
Course ID: RSCH5700
University Name: Johnson & Wales University
Study Level: Undergraduate
Location: Providence, Rhode Island
Research techniques differ from research methodologies in that they refer to the procedures you'll employ to acquire data for your research project. The optimal strategy for your project will be determined by your topic, the type of data you'll need, and the people or items you'll be gathering information from. A list of quantitative, qualitative, and hybrid research methods can be found below.
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Closed-ended questionnaires/surveys: These are similar to "multiple choice" assessments, in which participants must choose from a list of predetermined responses. They must choose the option that they agree with the most based on the content of the question. Because the data is straightforward to assemble and measure, this is the most basic sort of quantitative research.
Structured interviews: Because the data can be quantified, structured interviews are a typical market research tool. They are specifically designed to leave little "wiggle room" in the interview process in order to avoid distorted data. Structured interviews can be conducted in person, online, or over the phone.
When writing survey or questionnaire questions, there are a few things you can do to make sure they're accurate and simple to comprehend:
Maintain brevity and simplicity in your questions.
Ensure that your inquiries are free of any potential bias. Make sure they don't use language that favours one point of view over another.
While dealing with a delicate subject, you might want to ask oblique rather than direct queries. As a result, individuals aren't intimidated and are more inclined to communicate their actual feelings.
When utilising a closed-ended question, make an effort to include every possible response that a participant could give.
Do not ask questions that imply something about the respondent. Because the question "How often do you exercise?" presume that the participant exercises (although they may not), you should inquire if they exercise at all before asking how often they exercise.
Make your questionnaire as brief as possible. The longer a questionnaire is, the more likely it is that the subject may abandon it or become too fatigued to provide honest answers.
At the start of the questionnaire, assure your participants that their information will be kept private.
When you're thinking about using a quantitative approach to your research, you'll need to figure out what types of metrics you'll utilise. This will decide the type of numbers you'll use to collect information. There are four measuring levels:
Nominal: These are numbers that don't care what order they're in. They want to be able to distinguish between different types of data. Collecting zip codes from research participants is one example. The order of the numbers doesn't matter, but each zip code's series of numbers indicates distinct information.
Ordinal: Also known as ranks since the order in which these numbers are presented is important. This occurs when items are assigned a specific rank based on a set of criteria. Ranking-based questionnaires, in which participants are asked to rank items from least to most favoured, are a popular example of ordinal measurements. A pain scale is another popular example, in which a patient is asked to rate their pain on a range of 1 to 10.
Interval: This is when the data is ordered and the researcher is concerned in the distance between the numbers. Each number is separated by the same amount of space. Test grades are an example of interval data.
Ratio: When data is arranged and the distance between numbers is consistent, yet there is a "zero point," it is called a ratio. This indicates that everything you're measuring in your study could have a measurement of zero. Because the "zero point" remains constant in all measurements, measuring the height of anything is an example of ratio data. Something's height could possibly be zero.
Focus Groups - This is when a small group of people gets together to discuss a specific issue. They're also known as focus groups or group interviews (Dawson, 2019). A moderator is frequently present to(RSCH5700 task answers) help steer the debate and ask specific questions. A moderator must ensure that everyone in the group has an opportunity to speak so that no one dominates the topic. Focus group data usually consists of people's thoughts, opinions, and viewpoints on a topic.
There are two methods Observations for collecting data for research:
Direct observation is when a researcher examines a person in their natural surroundings. The researcher frequently takes notes or collects data using equipment such as a voice recorder or video camera. The researcher does not interact with the subjects or interfere with their work. This method is commonly utilised in psychology and health research.
Participant Observation: To gain a deeper grasp of the research issue, the researcher engages directly with the participants. When attempting to comprehend another culture or group, this is a frequent research strategy. Because it can be unethical, you must decide whether you will perform a covert (participants are unaware they are being observed) or overt (participants are aware the researcher is seeing them) observation.
Open-Ended Questionnaires - Because the response boxes are left open for the participant to fill in, these questionnaires are the polar opposite of "multiple choice" questionnaires. This means that participants can respond to the questions in a variety of ways. Following the collection of responses, researchers will frequently "quantify" the data by categorising the responses. Because the researcher must carefully read all comments, this can take a long time.
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