The term agriculture can be explained as the art and science of breeding the soil and rearing livestock. It is the most intrinsic human activity, including farming crops and upbringing the animals for their products. Agriculture is a vast sphere incorporating various sections like forestry, fishery, horticulture and many others. Cave dwellers in primitive times had begun being food gatherers and ate whatever they could attain in the forests. With time, they started cultivating their plants and breeding their animals. The animals were first used for their products but were later used to plough fields and make farming processes easier. As the civilization became advanced, the techniques for agriculture too modified. People started digging canals to provide sufficient water for better production of the plants and included many other improved methods to increase the harvesting amount. As the extent of agriculture got, various globalized innovations were put into place in every agricultural field.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have presented that 67% of the global population withholds agriculture, and 39.4% amongst the 43% of all the global exports are agricultural commodities. These values can portray the importance of agriculture in the world. Amongst all the countries, the top four agricultural countries are China, the US, Brazil and India. China has the largest population in the world and had earlier struggled to feed such a vast population. Later, with upgraded farming technologies and techniques, the country had grown highly on agricultural productivity and was highly employed for agriculture. The United States is profound for its agriculture science and has come up with some very advanced technologies in the world. If compared amongst all the countries, the United States can be called the most valuable country in agricultural science. The spectrum of agriculture increases by 5% every year and is a net exporter of farming commodities. Moving on, the economy of the country depends on the agricultural fields of Brazil. The country is the leading producer of sugarcane and is the widest exporter of coffee. In India, agriculture is the source of income for the people, and reports have shown that the primary source of income for the country is agriculture. The country is the highest producer of milk and consider cow as their mother. Agriculture provides 60% of the country's total GDP, and the country can be termed an agricultural country as it works for the country's economic growth.
Various environmental factors influence the agricultural activities. A different type of soil or climate, or water requirement is required for different products. The most important geographical factors that affect agriculture are climate, topography, soil and other biotic, economic and social constraints. Climate holds the most extensive power over agricultural variants. The amount of sunlight and the intensity of it all affect the maturity rate of a crop. It is seen that wheat crops grow better in the south of Britain as the weather conditions are warm, whereas oats grow better in the cooler climate.
Similarly, moisture is another factor that affects plant growth. Few crops like cereals need irrigation facilities, whereas vines and citrus fruits can efficiently evolve in Mediterranean conditions. The relief features of the world show that every terrain facilitates a different kind of agriculture that cannot be obtained from any other geographical area. Soil, formed of various minerals, is the support system of plants, and every crop requires different minerals for their adequate growth and production. Cotton grows well in black soil; whereas tobacco, oilseeds grow extensively in red soil. Biotic factors like weeds, diseases, insects, pests and animals hamper plant productivity. Many operations like render tilling and thinning operations are used in the cotton belts of the USA or coffee fields of Sri Lanka to free the fields of these disrupting weeds and parasitic plants.
There are various types of farming like subsistence farming, plantation agriculture, extensive cultivation, nomadic herding, livestock ranching and others. Subsistence agriculture is widely practised in countries like China, Japan, Korea, India, and South-East Asia. Farming in the lowlands and the uplands are intensive to support the vast population of the Asian countries. This agriculture is also termed oriental agriculture and can support nearly ten times more than an extensive far can produce. Plantation agriculture is a kind of commercial farming of cash crops found in parts of Africa and America. The critical crops of plantation agriculture are coffee, tea, cocoa and fruits like pineapples, sugarcane and others. Nomadic herding is a form of animal grazing which involves seasonal or constant migration of the flocks. This type of herding is stationed in rare populated regions where the vegetation is mainly grass, and the rainfall is less. This agriculture is practised in many regions of African savannas by various African tribes. Many herders of Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iran still practice these types of agriculture.
In the present times, robots are widely used to help in agricultural practices. Agriculture is on the verge of becoming a hi-tech industry and is attracting new investors and professionals. Researchers are finding new ways of implementing smart technology that can help efficient agricultural methods yield higher production of crops and livestock products. The UN has estimated that the world population will rise to 9.7 billion by the end of 2050, the production of food must increase to keep up with the escalating demands. Agricultural robots are the answer to these increasing demands. Fields are now accustomed to robots and drones to monitor the growth of the pants and check the necessary nutrients available for the plants. Many IoT gadgets are being researched that will be in future used in the agricultural fields. These robots monitor the growth of the plants, provide them with the required pesticides and are also used to pluck fruits from the orchids. Thus, it can be said that the demand for agriculture is rising with the passing years, and many influential companies are investing in this field and working towards making the occupation technological and, along with it, attract young minds to bring a change in society. here more than 4500+ Ph.D. experts available, that provide you plagiarism-free essays. It assures you to provide without the lost quality of the essay.