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The “Pueblo Revolt” is one of the important and fierce uprising that took place in the southern parts of the USA in 1680. The revolt or uprising took place between the native Mexicans that is the indigenous “Pueblo people” or tribe and the Spanish colonisers that was trying to occupy and settle in this part of the world. The uprising took place in the then province of “Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico” which is now known by the name of “New Mexico” of the USA. It is to be noted that the province of “Santa Fe” during the 1680’s was very big as compared to the modern day “New Mexico.” It was one of the most significant uprisings that happened in the then Mexico that killed as many as 40 Spanish settlers and have completely driven away the remaining 2000 Spanish people arrived in Santa Fe with the aim of acquiring and settlement within the province. However, it is to be noted that the conquest of Spain of New Mexico does not end here where it can be seen that Spain have reconquered the area of New Mexico after the next twelve years from the “Pueblo Revolt” that turned down the original Spanish conquest of Santa Fe. Thus, the aim of this this essay is to find out the event of uprising between the indigenous Mexicans and the Spanish settlers in details which is popularly known by the name of “Pueblo Revolt” of 1680.

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The Pueblo Revolt of 1860 is one of the most significant and fierce battles in the history of Mexico. However, in order to understand the event of the great uprising of the Mexicans against the Spanish people in 1860, one has to understand the true background of the events that happened before the uprising and effectively led to the revolt that broke out in 1860. It is to be noted over here that the “Pueblo Revolt” that happened in 1680 was not the first time when the native people of Santa Fe were attacked by any foreign power, where it can be seen that for more than 100 years, these indigenous people were facing the aggression of different settlers and missionaries. All these aggressions started way back in 1540’s when the Spanish colonist, “Francisco Vasquez de Coronado” attacked these native people of the southernmost North American continent which was known by the name of the “Tiguex War.” This war was fought in 1540 and lasted till 1541 during the winter months. This particular war was fought between the Spanish colonist Francisco and thirteen native Americans and is considered as the eminent reason behind the destruction of relationship between the native Americans and the Pueblo people. Hence, this is the reason that led to the happening of one of the most eminent uprisings in the history of North America, the “Pueblo Revolt” of 1680. Another eminent event that led to the great “Pueblo Revolt” was an extravagant aggression being portrayed by another Spanish colonist, “Juan de Onate” in 1598, who led 129 soldiers, a large number of children, women, slaves, servants and livestock and tried to settle within the “Rio Grande” valley of “New Mexico.” Juan led an all-inclusive aggression on the more than 40,0000 Pueblo people that inhabited the land. He, enslaved many native people and have also ordered his men and soldiers to cut-off the foot of all native men captured whose age is above 25. This act of cruelty enraged the local sentiments and led to the uprising on a step-by-step basis. The other eminent events included forcing the local indigenous people to pay a high tribute to the Spanish colonists.


Now, mentioning about the immediate cause of the revolt, the capture and subsequent release of the “Pope” is considered as the immediate cause. It was 1675 when the then governor of the Santa Fe, “Juan Francisco Trevino” ordered the capture of 47 “medicine men” who were “Pueblo” by origin. Four out of the 47 were even sentenced to death on account of “sorcery” practice or practice of magic. Three were executed while the last one committed suicide. On account of disclosure of such sensitive matter, the Pueblo people were enraged and the Pueblo people raided the seat of the governor. The majority of the Spanish soldiers were then fighting the Apache and as a result the governor decided to release the remaining hostages, among whom there was a person named “San Juan” also known as the “Pope.” He after the release gathered the confidence of the majority of the 46 Pueblo towns under the governor launched an all-out attack on the Spanish ruler.


The war thus started by a concrete and self-proclaimed leader of the Pueblo people, the “Pope.” The Pope gathered the confidence of majority of the Pueblo towns and gathered an altogether 2,000 men of Pueblo origin who fought against the 170-armed Spanish men who were responsible in guarding the residence of the governor on August 10, 1680. As a result, the fight was single-sided altogether where a total of 400 Spanish people were killed consisting of soldiers, men and women along with 33 Franciscan Missionaries. August 13, 1980 was the date by which all Spanish people fled the town of Santa Fe and the war came to a close on 21 August, 1680 when the governor finally retreated back from the New Mexico.


Pueblo Revolt which was one of the most significant uprisings in the history of North America started way back on August 10, 1680. The uprising was orchestrated by one of the self-proclaimed leaders of the Pueblo people, the “Pope” who gathered the confidence of the majority of the Pueblo towns that were ruled by a Spanish governor. The oppression and torture of the Pueblo people by the governor over the last 100 years was amongst the primary reasons of the great uprising. Finally, it can be seen that the great uprising came to a close on August 13, 1980 with the retreat of the Spanish governor from the town of Santa Fe with all his people and subjects. This was thus one of the greatest uprisings in the history of the North America that is vividly described in the history books that is worth investigating.

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