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Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the Monkeypox virus (MPXV) much similar to smallpox but the symptoms of monkeypox are much less severe (Minhaj et al., 2022). The virus was discovered in 1958 after outbreaks were observed within monkeys used for medical research (Minhaj et al., 2022). The origins of the virus can be traced to parts of West and Central Africa, however, in recent times it has spread to several countries and has infected thousands of people, especially people belonging to the male gay and bisexual communities (Minhaj et al., 2022). The information for this paper has been gathered from the research conducted by Minhaj et al., (2022) and Gigante et al., (2022); the sources are peer-reviewed and have been approved by esteemed institutions. Other than this, the authors are credible belonging to reputed organizations and institutions.

Recently approximately 34 states in America have suffered from over 605 cases of monkeypox and the most affected and at risk are the men who have sex with men (MSM) community (Gigante et al., 2022). However, anyone is at risk who comes in close contact for prolonged hours with the virus. Adverse outcomes include bronchopneumonia, secondary infections, sepsis, cornea infection, encephalitis, and vision loss, in pregnant women, it can cause stillbirth and spontaneous pregnancy loss (Gigante et al., 2022). Among the solutions offered for monkeypox the most used remains antiviral agents such as Tecovirimat (TPOXX, ST-246). The disease tends to disappear on its own. However, in some cases, the most effective treatment available is TPOXX (Sherwat et al., 2022).

For primary prevention, it is necessary to avoid any close contact with infected people, sanitize or wash hands frequently, wearing gloves and masks when caring for monkeypox patients. Smallpox vaccines like Jynneos and ACAM2000 can prevent Monkeypox (Sherwat et al., 2022). For secondary prevention, it is necessary to identify and isolate to limit the spread of the virus and to take care of dehydration and other symptoms like rash, fever, chills, muscle aches, headaches and exhaustion, painful and swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and infections from lesions. For tertiary prevention, if the virus does not disappear on its own antiviral agents like TPOXX can be used (Sherwat et al., 2022). Public Health nurses are in close proximity to hundreds of people they treat which makes them open to contracting the virus. Epidemiology suggests that it can be contracted through sex or other intimate contact and being in close proximity with an infected person or their properties like bedding, clothes, and so on. The symptoms are usually visible within 21 days and it is necessary to quarantine oneself to avoid spread (Sherwat et al., 2022). Cleaning oneself and washing hands after contact can also help. MSM communities should stay more aware as well as pregnant females and health workers who are at most risk.

Reference List

Gigante, C. M., Korber, B., Seabolt, M. H., Wilkins, K., Davidson, W., Rao, A. K., ... & Li, Y. (2022). Multiple lineages of Monkeypox virus detected in the United States, 2021-2022. bioRxiv.
Minhaj, F. S., Ogale, Y. P., Whitehill, F., Schultz, J., Foote, M., Davidson, W., ... & Wong, M. (2022). Monkeypox outbreak—nine states, May 2022. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 71(23), 764.
Sherwat, A., Brooks, J.T., Birnkrant, D., Kim, P. (2022). Tecovirimat and the Treatment of Monkeypox — Past, Present, and Future Considerations | NEJM. New England Journal of Medicine. Retrieved from,effectiveness%20against%20monkeypox%20and%20rabbitpox.

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