Essay On Pharmaceutical Science


Over the past 30 years, there has been an increase in interest in how drugs and medications are delivered. Typically, a drug is administrated at a fixed time in a large dose that must be repeated multiple days or hours later. This frequently has negative side effects and impairs the management of pharmacological therapy. As a result, techniques for administering medications consistently for extended periods of time and in a controlled manner have come under growing scrutiny. Embedding the medicines into polysaccharides has been the main technique for achieving this controlled release. This essay will discuss and describe the role of coating of solid dosage forms in achieving extended release.

How Coating Of The Drugs Can Aid In The Extended Release?

A system that controls release by eroding or dissolving a coating is known as an enteric coating. Under acidified circumstances, an enteric coating is resistant to disintegration, but it is readily dissolved under the basic conditions of the gastrointestinal system (Awad, & et al., 2019). Drugs that are alkaline may be protected by the coating, as well as medications with high aspirin quantities that can cause gastrointestinal issues (Porter, 2021).  The coating prevents the drug from being secreted in the acidic environment of the stomach before entering the intestine, which is a valuable technique for the oral dosage form of pharmaceuticals like insulin that quickly breakdown in the stomach.
The coating preserves the durability of APIs that become destabilized when placed in the acidic environment of the stomach. Azithromycin, pancreatic, and the proton pump inhibitor family, which includes omeprazole, are examples of such APIs (Korte, & Quodbach, 2018). It reduces the potential negative effects of some APIs, like aspirin, and several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which include stomach upset, nausea, and bleeding. It opens up the possibility of using "nocturnal dose" methods, which enable the dose formulation to be taken preceding bed in order to attain the API's optimum plasma concentration immediately before awakening. 
The primary job of coating is to safeguard the drug ingredient and active ingredient underneath, allowing them to avoid being broken down in the stomach and instead disintegrate and release their contents into the small intestine (Lowinger, & et al., 2018). Such methods are employed to stop the stomach mucosa from becoming irritated by certain medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or to stop the destruction of alkaline medications, such as catalysts or polymers, in the Gastro-intestinal fluids. Customized dosage and its variations are methods used in tablet devices (medications) and pods to disperse a drug over time so that it is absorbed into the body more gradually and steadily while having the benefit of being carried at less various intervals than instant formulations of the exact same drug (Khatri, Shah, & Vora, 2018). 
People with persistent pain can, for instance, take just one or two pills of extended-release morphine each day.  It generally relates to oral dosage compositions with the time-dependent distribution. The timed distribution comes in a variety of various forms, including sustained release, which aims for the prolonged and delayed release. A dosage form that, when related to the medicine when it is delivered in an instant (traditional) dosage form, enables at least a twice decrease in dosing intensity. Controlled-release, prolonged, and long-acting medication products are a few examples of extended-release dose formulations. 
Numerous names for drugs with longer duration frequently indicate that the drug release rate is steady or zero. Furthermore, a lot of these pharmaceutical goods only discharge the medicine after the first delivery. Based on the pH of a certain area of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, some customized drug products may deliver the medicine. These items are created with ingredients that are easily soluble at a specific pH (Kaur, 2018). A perfect extended-release medicine product would release the medication at a constant pace regardless of the pH, electrolyte concentration, or other substances present along the whole gastrointestinal region. When compared to the identical drug's immediate-release dosage forms, ER dosage forms provide a number of significant benefits (Langer, & Wise, 2019). The extended-release enables the drug to remain at appropriate serum concentrations for a prolonged amount of time. This prolongs and stabilizes the detailed medical effect.
A substance capsule is covered with coating ingredient fluids, colloidal, or even solvents in the coating process. Dispersion is used to achieve the drug's prolonged release from this mechanism, which is regarded as a catchment basin (Gioumouxouzis, & et al., 2018). Therefore, the transparency of the polymeric membranes is specifically correlated to the absorption of body fluids, and the modification in coating thickness can control the pace at which medications are released. Low hydrophobic pores setters that enable generating pathways in the barrier are frequently used to improve medication release (Lamichhane, & et al., 2019). Numerous advancements in the field of prolonged medicines have been made during the past few years, and novel combinations are continually entering the market. 
Due to their simplicity of fabrication and a high degree of homogeneity, the majority of the formulations are hydrophilic composite systems designed. Moreover, these dosage forms have been improved by the use of advanced techniques (Banker, 2019). Extended-release drug delivery methods are the best for increasing treatment adherence and maximizing efficacy. Understanding the many molecular causes causing delayed drug release and how they affect altering the protracted functioning of such technologies in a real-world application setting is essential for creating devices with extended-release dynamics.


The majority of traditional (immediate release) oral medication preparations, including capsules and tablets are intended to release the active ingredient as soon as they are swallowed. The medication release rate is not specifically altered when pharmacological preparations are created. The beginning of the concomitant pharmacologic consequences and medication ingestion are often rather quick with immediate-release medicines. The transformation of active drugs in orally administered preparations to the active medication by liver or gastrointestinal metabolism or biochemical degradation may cause the pharmacologic action to be sluggish. This essay has described how the coating helps in achieving the extended release of drug in the body. The essay also discussed various advantages of extended release of the drug than the immediate release that was administered traditionally. The coating of the drugs considered to be the safest practice in this field.


Awad, A., Fina, F., Trenfield, S. J., Patel, P., Goyanes, A., Gaisford, S., & Basit, A. W. (2019). 3D printed pellets (miniprintlets): A novel, multi-drug, controlled release platform technology. Pharmaceutics, 11(4), 148.
Banker, G. S. (2019). Pharmaceutical applications of controlled release: An overview of the past, present, and future. Medical applications of controlled release, 1-34.
Gioumouxouzis, C. I., Baklavaridis, A., Katsamenis, O. L., Markopoulou, C. K., Bouropoulos, N., Tzetzis, D., & Fatouros, D. G. (2018). A 3D printed bilayer oral solid dosage form combining metformin for prolonged and glimepiride for immediate drug delivery. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 120, 40-52.
Kaur, G., Grewal, J., Jyoti, K., Jain, U. K., Chandra, R., & Madan, J. (2018). Oral controlled and sustained drug delivery systems: Concepts, advances, preclinical, and clinical status. In Drug targeting and stimuli sensitive drug delivery systems (pp. 567-626). William Andrew Publishing.
Khatri, P., Shah, M. K., & Vora, N. (2018). Formulation strategies for solid oral dosage form using 3D printing technology: A mini-review. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 46, 148-155.
Korte, C., & Quodbach, J. (2018). 3D-printed network structures as controlled-release drug delivery systems: dose adjustment, API release analysis and prediction. AAPS PharmSciTech, 19(8), 3333-3342.
Lamichhane, S., Park, J. B., Sohn, D. H., & Lee, S. (2019). Customized novel design of 3D printed pregabalin tablets for intra-gastric floating and controlled release using fused deposition modeling. Pharmaceutics, 11(11), 564.
Langer, R. S., & Wise, D. L. (2019). Medical applications of controlled release. CRC Press LLC.
Lowinger, M. B., Barrett, S. E., Zhang, F., & Williams III, R. O. (2018). Sustained release drug delivery applications of polyurethanes. Pharmaceutics, 10(2), 55.
Porter, S. C. (2021). Coating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. In Remington (pp. 551-564). Academic Press.
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