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How To Write A Paper In IEEE Format - Citation And Referencing

IEEE Format

The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a globally recognized professional association that provides support to a diverse range of fields related to engineering, computer science, and information technology. The IEEE is a notable publisher of scientific journals, conference proceedings, and publications that serve as an essential resource for researchers, scholars, and industry professionals.

In addition to their publishing activities, the IEEE is responsible for creating standards that are widely used in various sectors, such as telecommunications, power and energy, aerospace, and more. These standards are instrumental in ensuring that different technologies and systems function efficiently and safely in a complex and interconnected world.

The IEEE paper format style is unique in that it uses numbered in-text citations in square brackets that correspond to the complete citation found in the paper's reference list. This list is arranged numerically, making it easy for readers to locate the sources cited in the text.

What is IEEE Format?

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE format citation style is a widely used referencing format for academic writing in the fields of electronics, engineering, telecommunications, computer science, and information technology. It is a standardized method of citing sources that ensures proper credit is given to the authors of the works consulted.

The IEEE style citation follows a specific format that comprises three primary elements. The author's first initial followed by their complete last name is the first element. The second element is the title of the source, enclosed in quotation marks. Finally, the book or journal title is in italics, which is the third element. This approach allows readers to easily identify the information source and trace it back to its origin.

However, it is important to note that the proper use of punctuation, dates, and page numbers may vary depending on the type of reference being cited. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the examples provided for each type of reference to ensure accurate and consistent citations.

It is also important to note that while the IEEE citation style covers a wide range of topics, not all sources are included in this style. Thus, additional research may be necessary to find relevant sources. This is particularly important for those working in interdisciplinary fields where sources may not be classified under one of the standard IEEE categories.

Following the IEEE regulations is an essential part of academic writing in the fields of electronics, engineering, telecommunications, computer science, and information technology. It ensures that proper credit is given to the authors of the works consulted and that readers can easily trace the sources back to their origin.

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Why Are Citations Important In Academic Writing?

Academicians and tutors working for ‘Write My Essay’ services can list a plethora of justifications for the significance of citations in academic writing when pressed. All of them are attempted to be distilled into three main points in the list below. This is done in order to convey more information to the readers in less words.

a. Avoid Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the act of an author intentionally or unintentionally presenting someone else's scholarly work as their own. Academics consider it to be one of the most severe offenses. Students who commit plagiarism may receive a failing grade or even be expelled from school. In some cases, they might face severe consequences such as large fines or imprisonment.

Citations like for example, IEEE format citations are used to give credit to the original sources from which authors derive their ideas. This helps to eliminate instances of plagiarism in academic writing.

b. Easy Validation

Research paper writing service experts say that citations are used to give credit to the original sources from which authors derive their ideas. This helps to eliminate instances of plagiarism in academic writing.

A citation can also be used to help readers carefully evaluate a text's reliability. Readers can compare the contents of the referred works to those of the current text by using accurate citations. Readers can then assess the veracity of the author's arguments and statements by doing this. Citations also assist readers in confirming the accuracy of a text's facts. Readers can verify a text's veracity by fact-checking it by looking through the cited sources.

Citations also provide readers with the chance to research the subject matter of the material they are reading on their own. They learn more about subjects that aren't addressed in the book as a result.

c. Showcase Research Capabilities

High-quality references are an essential component of any well-written academic paper. They are logically consistent, come with the support of eminent researchers, and provide excellent research evidence.

Authors that include such high-caliber references such as IEEE writing format in their writing demonstrate their reading comprehension and talent for identifying high-caliber research books. Put another way, writers gain the respect of readers and other writers when they meticulously fill in their bibliographies and in-text citations with reputable sources.

The Basic of IEEE Page Format

  • The title of the document of an IEEE format paper should be written in 24-point type and centered at the top of the first page.
  • After a line break and in 10-point font, the byline should be centered beneath the title. The following, on separate lines, ought to be included:
    • Name of the author (or writers)
    • Author affiliation(s)
    • Location(s) in the city and nation
    • email address (es).
  • The paper's body should be prepared to appear in two columns and should use a 10-point type. It might be necessary to add a column break after you have completed the body of your paper in order to ensure that the columns on the final page are all the same length.
  • Abstract and index terms in an IEEE-style paper must appear at the start of every paper.
  • Depending on the field and setting, papers may contain some or all of the following -
    • Note to Practitioners
    • Nomenclature
    • Appendices
    • Acknowledgments
  • Sections and subsections can be included in papers; the IEEE formatting provides recommendations for main, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary section headings.
  • IEEE papers start with a drop cap two lines deep, and then they are all caps for the next 8–12 characters (or 1-2 words, depending on the context).
  • Sequential, distinct numbers should be assigned to figures, tables, and equations in every IEEE-style paper. Additionally, they must be centered in the column in which they are displayed.

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Parts of a Paper


A single paragraph that is 200 words or less should be the length of an abstract styled in IEEE citations and formatting manner. It must be self-contained and provide a clear, accurate summary of the information in your work. To make it easier for interested readers to find your post, it is advised that you strive to use three or four keywords or key phrases.

Abstracts ought to have a straightforward format, devoid of any elements that call for expert typesetting or external material consultation. Specifically prohibited are footnotes, references, tables, graphs, charts, figures, and displayed mathematical equations. An abstract should be a concise, easily readable, and self-contained summary of your work.

Consider your audience and organize information logically. Keep sentences short and use simple, everyday language. Use active verbs instead of noun phrases. The goal is to make the text clear and easy to understand without changing the meaning or leaving out important information. 

Section Headings

In IEEE papers, it is advised to divide one's manuscript into clearly designated sections as this improves readability. Sections related to the paper's content within the body of the work, as well as the Introduction and Conclusion sections, are typical sections.

  • Roman numbers are used to list the primary headings of IEEE papers; these are set in small caps, centered above the text, and are followed by a period.
  • The secondary headers are listed in uppercase characters, are separated from the body of content by a line break, and are italicized in title case.
  • Arabic numbers are used to indicate tertiary headings, which are then split from the body of content by a colon, left-aligned, italicized, and title-cased. The text and heading do not have a line break.
  • Lowercase letters are used as quaternary headers, which are then enumerated, placed in italics and sentence case, left-aligned, and separated from the body of text by a colon. Here, there isn't a line break, either.
  • Appendix headings should be formatted like primary headings. If there's only one, name or number it Appendix. If there's more than one, number it and give it a title. Note: the numbering for appendix headings is different from section headings.


The Nomenclature section is where you should provide a list of definitions for any symbols, variables, and other terms you may find yourself using frequently. This will help you avoid having to describe these terms later in your paper. The Nomenclature part comes just before the Introduction section if you decide to include one.

The Nomenclature section's heading is formatted similarly to a primary heading without a numeral, while the section itself is formatted largely in the same way as body text, with variables italicized. The definitions are aligned one em-space behind the longest defined term, while the terms themselves are flat against the left margin. This is the primary alignment difference.

How to Cite Different Types of Sources in IEEE Report Format?

Reports on electronics, engineering, telecommunications, computer science, and information technology are typically IEEE-style papers. A reference consists of the following three primary parts:

  • The first initial of the author's name appears first, followed by the complete last name.
  • The article, patent, conference paper, etc. title is enclosed in quotation marks.
  • The book or journal title is italicized.

With the help of this approach, the reader may quickly determine the information source. Take care to follow the examples when it comes to punctuation, dates, and page numbers, as they vary depending on the type of reference referenced.

The author, the number of pages utilized, and the publishing date do not need to be included in the in-text citation. As an alternative, cite the source by using a number enclosed in square brackets, such as [1], which will match the whole citation in your reference list.

Within the line of text, place the citations in brackets, placing a space before the first bracket and before any punctuation. As you cite sources in the document, assign numbers to each one. After you have cited a source and assigned it a number, stick with that number when you cite that source in your paper.

It is recommended to list each number individually in its own brackets, with a comma or dash in between, when citing numerous sources at once.

In-text citation examples:

"...end of the queue for my research [13]."

"This theory was first put forward in 1987 [1]."

"Scholtz [2] has argued that..."

"Several recent studies [3], [4], [15], [16] have suggested that...."

"For example, see [7]."

Digital Documents

Here are examples of how to cite digital documents in IEEE-style papers. Follow the examples carefully to understand better –


[1] L. Ross, P. Chandler, and R. Green, Software in Practice, 3rd Ed. Reading, MA: Abby Schumer, 2013. [E-book] Available: Safari e-book.

Article in Online Encyclopedia

[2] D. Adams “ABCDE,” in a Dictionary of the Internet. Oxford University Press, [online document], 2001. Available: Oxford Reference Online,

Journal Article Abstract (accessed from an online database)

[1] M. T. Khan and D. Manor, “An Article about the Subject” Information and Software Technology, vol. 47, no. 8, p. 533, June 2005. [Abstract]. Available: ProQuest,

Journal Article in Scholarly Journal

[2] A. Bass, “Understanding hypertext in the context of reading on the web: Language learners’ experience,” Current Issues in Education, vol. 6, no. 12, July, 2005. [Online serial]. Available: [Accessed Dec. 2, 2007].

Newspaper Article from the Internet

[3] C. Marion, “Computers as Key Literacy,” The Journal-Constitution, para. 3, May 18, 2007. [Online], Available: [Accessed Sept. 18, 2007].

Print References

Cite the print references in IEEE papers in the following manner -


Single Author

[1] A. B. abc, The xyz. Belmont, CA: WadsworthPress,2003.Edited Book

[2] A.B. abc and E.F.efg., The ABC. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001.Selection in an Edited Book

[3] A. B. abc and B. D. bde, “xyx” in The SRAST, J. L. JKL and B. H. BHS, Eds.New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001, pp-1-64.Three or More Authors

[4] R. H, G. P, and S. W, ABC. H, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

Book by an Institutional or Organizational Author

[5] Council of Biology Editors, Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed., Chicago: Cambridge University Press, 2006.


[6] Bell Telephone Laboratories Technical Staff, Transmission System for Communication, Bell Telephone Lab, 2005.

Application Note

[7] Hewlett-Packard, Appl. Note 935, pp.25-29.

Data Sheet

[10] Texas Instruments, “High-speed CMOS logic analog multiplexers/demultiplexers,” 74HC4051 datasheet, Nov. 1997 [Revised Sept. 2002].

Government Publication

[11] National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Pocket Statistics. Washington, DC: Office of Headquarters Operations, 2007.

Paper Published in Conference Proceedings

[12] J. Smith, R. Jones, and K. Trello, “Adaptive filtering in data communications with self-improved error reference,” In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications ’04, 2004, pp. 65-68.

Papers Presented at Conferences

[13] H. A. Nimr, “Defuzzification of the outputs of fuzzy controllers,” presented at 5th International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, Cairo, Egypt, 2006.

Thesis or Dissertation

[14] H. Zhang, “Delay-insensitive networks,” M. S. thesis, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 2007.

Article in Encyclopaedia

[15] O. Singh, “Computer graphics,” in McGraw-Hill Encyclopaedia of Science and Technology, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007, pp. 279-291.


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