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Exploring Specialized Cell Types And Functions

It is possible to assess with the help of the microscope that all the living things are composed of cells. The cells are treated as the elementary unit of life. But not all the organisms are made of the same type of cells; some are formed of a collection of cells which are identical and assistances from cooperating. In contrast, in some organisms, the cells are unidentical and vary significantly not only the outlook but also execute different functions in the organisms. In multicellular organisms, there are cells which carry out the specialized functions known as specialised cells. There are more than 200 kinds of specialised cells and specialized implies that although they are same, the cells vary in either in shape and size or in the functions they perform which is dependent on the role they play in the individual bodies.

The sets of specialised cells work together to make a tissue, known as muscle. And then these diverse tissues are clustered together which in turn produces longer functional units which are defined as organs. Every type of tissues, organ and cells have a different structure and performs a distinctive function which enables the organism to work in entirety. The cell theory suggests that each cell originates from a previously prevailing cell and several cells in a compact body are not identical at all. Because not every cell can digest the food, or fight with the disease, or carry the essential nutrients within, and coordinate the body movements. The specialised cells have those certain physical and chemical variances which enable them to carry out one task very efficiently and effectively. These cells can look very different from each other since cell specialization involves changes in the form and roles.

Specialised cells types

There are various types of specialised cells as discussed earlier that there are over 200 types. Some of the types of specialized cells are listed below –

  • Nerve cells (Neurons)
  • Red Blood cells
  • Muscle cells
  • Leukocyte cells
  • Sperm cells
  • White Blood cells
  • Epithelial cells

Specialised cells functions

There are various specialised cells in an organism and each performs the different function which makes them a specialised cell and all these come together to enable a body to perform tasks and work efficiently. Thus the functions performed by the five different types of specialised cells are varied and can be specified distinctively from each other and are discussed as below –

  • Neurons - The nerve cells are also called as neurons which is a type of specialised cell. It transmits the messages in the human brain. These cells are similar to other cells but there are particular features which distinguish these cells from other cells. It includes the feature which allows these cells to carry out the required communicative functions. Nerve cells have extensions which are known as dendrites and axons, which transports information into the cell and releases the information from cells itself. Certain neurons also encompass structures along with carrying the chemicals which are essential and specified for electrochemical communication. It allows them to converse with one another and to make primary thought and functioning of human body possible.
  • Red blood cells – The red blood cells carry oxygen all over the body, which includes delivering it to the organs which necessitate this life-giving gas. These type of cells are largely made of hemoglobin which is a chemical that permits for the commitment and carrying of oxygen. In such cells, there is a lack of a collection of fragments which is usually allied with cells, as well as mitochondria and a nucleus. But the lack of such organelles enables the cell to carry more oxygen around the body.
  • Muscle cells – These are the type of specialized cells which allows the movement possible and are cylindrical in shape, formed of banded fibres which make contraction possible. The human body is able to finish a variety of movement-based everyday jobs because of the functions served by these specialized cells. These cells join together to form larger body structures like other cells in the human body.

There are different type of muscle cell – cardiac, skeletal, smooth. The cardiac muscle cells join together to form a net and such cells contract metrically even outside the body and never gets tired. The skeletal muscle is linked to bones and cells of this muscle contract to let the bones move and to enable the joints to bend. The cells of the smooth muscle form thin sheets of muscle, like the stomach lining, and these can also be arranged in the form of the bundle, or in the shape of the rings.

  • Leukocyte – These cells prevents the human body from different infections and protects it. Such cells first find out the microbes and then destroy them inside the human body, in such manner it responds to the infection and treats the same. These cells are extremely mobile in nature since they have to move to the place of disease and are also capable of continuing through to capillary walls when it is required for reaching the place of the infection. They can change their shapes on a regular basis apart from the mobility feature, as this assists the leukocyte cells in carrying out their functions efficiently and more effectively.
  • Sperm cells – These cells are specialized cells and are necessary for human reproduction. Such cells are majorly composed of a nucleus. These cells are not like some other stationery cells and thus are highly mobile since they need to move to trace an egg for fertilisation to takes place. The mitochondria inside the sperm cell offer the required energy which these type of specialized cells require in order to move at a high rate of speed.


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